“Epicurus, the son of Neocles and Chaerestrata, was an Athenian from the deme of Gargettus and the lineage of the Philaïdes. He was born 341 B.C.E. He live till 270 B.C.E. From his garden he crated a utopian community where people could live devoted to simple pleasures and joy in a way the exploited no one, harmed no one, including oneself and could easily be shared with all of humanity. This is what he taught.
The fundamental obstacle to happiness, says Epicurus, is anxiety. No one can be happy if they are anxious or never satisfied no matter how rich. Good health will not make you happy if you're worried about getting sick. You will not be happy in this life if you're worried about what happens to you after you die. People who are fearful of worried about being punished or victimized by powerful divine beings will only find sorrow in life. It is very easy to be happy if you follow the four basic truths of Epicureanism: there are no divine beings that threaten us; there is no next life; what we actually need is easy to get; what makes us suffer is easy to put up with. "Don't fear god, don't worry about death; what's good is easy to get, and what's terrible is easy to endure”.
Epicurus four keys to happiness:
1. Fear no god
2. Fear death even less
3. Pleasure is easily attained
4. Pain is easily endured
Epicurus Path to Happiness
1. It is impossible to live pleasurably without living sensibly
2.To provide for one self with minimum effort to secure protection from harm
3. True security cost little
4.Comfort is easily attained and wealth is never enough
5. Pleasure that costs little and harms no one is best
6. The greatest pleasure is the simplest pleasure
7. Reason makes any surprises acceptable
8. Allowing all people the same amount of life's necessities this makes theft unimportant
19. The greatest obstacle to pleasure is fear
10. The fear of the gods and of death is the source of most evil
11. We can dispel these fears by understanding life, death, nature and the universe
12. Pleasure is impossible until science dispels superstitions about life, death and nature
13. True pleasures are simple and easily attained neither wealth or eternal life adds anything
14. Eternity contains no more or greater pleasure than that attained in the now
15. The gods add nothing to humans or their happiness
Siddhartha Gautama Buddha maybe (?) (563 BCE to 483 BCE)
Siddhartha was born into the royal Hindu Kshatriya family. His mother died in childbirth. The Buddha was raised by his mother's youngest sister, Maha Pajapati.
When Siddhartha was sixteen he married his cousin Yasodhara. They had a son Rahula. When he was 29 he left home to travel alone a find the source of suffering and seek enlightenment.
Buddha’s four noble truths:
Dukkha: Human life is filled with pleasure and suffering.
Tanka: Suffering and pain are the result of desires. This is our karma
Nirodha: Escape from pain can only happen when all desires are eliminated.
This can only happen by following the eight-fold path to nirvana.
Eight fold path.
1. Right knowledge – the four noble truths.
2. Right thought.
3. Right speech.
4. Right behavior.
5. Right effort.
6. Right livelihood.
7. Right mindfulness or watchfulness.
8. Right concentration and meditation.
Also Lao Tse Born 604 BCE of the Taoist school.
He was from Ch'ü-jen, which is which called Honan Province, today it is the southern most tip of China.
He never died he simply road off on the back of a buffalo to Tibet and was never seen again.
Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices:
1. Tao the unity and first-cause of the universe. All life is a manifestation of Tao.
2. Tao is everywhere surrounding everything in time and space
3. A wise person’s goal is to harmonize with the Tao.
4. The many gods are but a manifestation of Tao, existing any other living thing.
5. The gods do not answer prayers of humans, as they are unaware of people.
6. Answers are found through observing nature.
7. Time is cyclical moving in continuous patterns.
8. Each person should try to be as healthy as possible.
9. Five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.
10. People should take care to nurture their breath (Ch`I), which is sacred.
11. This will give us the three jewels of compassion, moderation and humility.
12. Follow wu wei meaning allow nature to be natural in her own way.
13. Through this mindset people can plan their actions safely.
14. Compassion is its own reward.