Monday, September 19, 2011

The best of Historical Sociology


The best of Historical Sociology

Classical Marxism

Based upon the writings of the Marxist movement from its foundation to the October 1917 (November 7) Revolution. Particularly important are the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Also important are the writings of Marxists of the First and Second International, as they people that may have the originators of knew the first generation of Marxists

Orthodox Marxism is associated with the Second International revival after the Great War and the Third (Marxism Leninism or Communist International Comintern) and Fourth (Trotskyism) Internationals.  Third and Fourth share one thing in common. This is the vanguard party at the front line of any movement, or revolution of mass action must be lead by a vanguard of highly trained professional revolutionaries.

Bern International Feb. 3–10, 1919 patriotic moderate social democratic reformist parliamentarian parties. Second and a Half International or the “International Working Union of Socialist Parties” (Vienna International), from 1921 to 1923 coming together of socialist parties holding moderate political views of reform not revolution believing in the gradual transformation of capitalism into democratic socialism in Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Spain, Poland, Rumania, the USA, France, Switzerland, and the Russian Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. It was created at the Vienna conference of parties and groups, which took place Feb. 22–27, 1921, and which formally broke with the unprincipled Bern International. Leading Labor and social democratic parties after World War II.

Neo-Marxism post World War II including attempts to rearrange Marxist theory including incorporating elements of Weberian Sociology, Existentialism, Hegelian Philosophy, Critical theory, Freudian psychology or Economic teachings of Karl Polanyi.

April 20, 2011

The beast in Sociology is drawn from the inspirations of Karl Marx and Max Weber in sociology. Examining the influence on subsequence Sociological theory in relation to rational and/ or/ vs. sympathetic understanding in the creation of Historical Sociology as a guide to social action leads an activism founded upon real data and guided by theory and the power of the will alone (wishful thinking).

General History of Anthropology from racism to advocacy.
Beginning with the European global expansion in the 16th Century using Genesis of the Bible as the model for the study of non-European as the Other representing people fallen from Grace.
During the Enlightenment 1690 to 1815, non-European represented different stage of the historical development of Europeans.
19th racialist, using evolutionary ideas to support the idea of European racial superiority.
During the 20th, which saw the development of ideas of cultural relativism, which saw culture and people making nominal and not ordinal level differences.  
21st Century we will see the establishment of Anthropologist as advocate and activist.

Political studies
Marxism as a social movement is also the growth and evolution of many competing theories. The major and minor classics in Marxist thought from the founders to the present a mind set to understand the living history and the continual changes of everyday life.

Examples are the politics of popular vs. counter culture.

Politics of Hate and the Politics of exclusion begins with the comparisons between Classical European Fascism of the 1920s through the 1940s with religious fundamentalism of Christian, Islamic and Jewish from 1920 till 2009.

I will begin in-depth comparisons between Substantivist Economic theories i.e. Karl Polanyi and his followers with Karl Marx and Classical, Orthodox and Neo- Marxists theories particularly in relation to gaining an understanding of economic crisis in relation to neo-colonialism, imperialism and globalization.

I think I should examine the Hegelian roots of the following.
Marxism as seen above falls into broad categories classical, orthodox, Neo-Marxism of many verities.
Left Existentialism (atheist)
Anarchism Communism and Syndicalism
Dialectical Secular Humanism
We need to read carefully read Phenomenology of the Mind, Science of Logic, Logic, History of Philosophy, and Philosophy of Right by Hegel took detailed notes and to use this and all of the above to argue for replacing cause and effect models with multivariate analysis models.

The study of the American Left from the vantage point of Communist Party USA its historical roots, its importance during the 1930’s, its decline and collapse and its relations with the non-Communist left.  Particularly important is the importance of political vs. economic activism. Of greater importance is the debate between starting a third party or working within the left wing of the Democratic Party.

Socialist Part USA
Industrial Workers of the World
Communist Party USA
            1919 – 1924 Legal or Underground (the Red Scare)
            1924 – 1928 factional fights
            1928 – 1935 Third period supper revolutionary
1935 – 1939 Popular Front ant-fascist collective security
1939 1941 Yanks aren’t coming, nonaggression pack
1941 – 1945 Pro war political association
1946 -1956 Cold War super paranoia
1956 – 1957 Open discussions
1956 – 1991 Closed society
Trotskyists groups
Post-War, and post 1968 Neo- Marxism
New Communist Movement Maoists
American versions of
            New Left

April 21, 2011

Freedom is an illusion, but liberation is real. To once again to be in charge of the day to day decisions affecting our lives is what liberation is all about, even slaves are taught to feel free by accepting there place in life and not to question how thing really are.

Yet at every instant things we see around us are as they appear and also what they are not yet but will become someday. Natures are the vivacious ceaseless development and collective interrelated parts and are brought together in sequence inherent in the Absolute. Contradiction are the driving force of Ideas brought to the front from foundation to eradication a something through a drawn out course of evolution until it emerges from its past and into the future.

Human life in a material world is continually modified by culture and society. This culture fact exists before the birth of the individual. This is the raw material that exists outside of any individual’s consciousness. This defines the facts of life that limit my options, yet options remain making choice inescapable. It is through choice we become who we are. It is through choice we become what we will become. It is through choice we not only change ourselves but our environment.

Alienation, estrangement or separations are crucial cases in point in radical philosophy. Everything both what it is and what it is not, but what will become. Everything stands opposed to itself the resolution of this conflict is something is born out what went before.  In this process the elimination of what is creates what will be.

Because the continual changes going on Humans exist with a unitary or universal human nature. Without a complete or commonly public individual temperament shared by all humans, whatever exists as a biological precondition is remolded by culture and history. Absent in all individuals is a single human nature. But what common to all people is human history. From the past we draw the elements to create the future. Because we are dealing with a changing environment in which we are altering the environment we are forever coming to terms we the changes going on around us. There is always an uncertainty about the future. We lessen as much as we can the anxiety that goes with insecurity, never completely or even successfully, but we try. We all seek to control what we can and avoid that which we cannot overcome. We make choices that will either increase or decrease our chances.

The Cancellation through perpetually demolishing the obtainable located varieties of existence from the beginning to the end of any and all events just so happens with the negation of contradictory tensions.  This resolution happens by bringing to an end by decorous commentate on the animadvert expression of the subtraction from the cancellation of the reversal of open conflicting the foundation the combination of the All. Each movement follows the parts breaking off that which passes from history creating raw materials the forever future new.

Certainty born from experience is always becoming what it is not. The past is an ineffective essence sealed in ideas of tradition. Traditions unaccompanied by current reality become more difficult to maintain. While the actual world functions apart from its culture influence people struggle to make sense of their world. People become increasingly frustrated because things are not working as planed. The absurd becomes too silly to talk about as we become frustrated with the annoyance of the irritation of everyday existence. Culture decay and revolution leading to national rot preceding the insurgency that changes the worldview and spirit of the age.

Philosophy in the epoch of universal collapse will realize and broadcast the imperative of a system that redefines the synchronization of human beings and their requirements. This can be discovered through historical sociology. Intelligence is the genuine appearance of confidence in which the opposition of attentiveness and purpose are removed. Encounters are changed from one condition into another and into the authentic harmony and prevalence of humanity. The goal of all democratic social movements is to establish a say in the decision that affect ones day-to-day life.

Labor is the source of the fulfillment when labor, art and play are the same term and it the human spiritual connection with nature. Labor is a source of alienation when the direct producer works for another and not for once self or in service to the larger community. The worker only lives if she can find a job in which some one else owns the raw materials, the tools and the final product that the worker makes with her own labor. She is separated from her body and her life that is allowed to live only because finds her work profitable. She is not important because she is a person, but only because she can operate as one component in a larger productive process. Nature which human are but an interactive part of the larger ecosystem and which people their self satisfaction, cultural fulfillment and personal identity is replaced by a hostile relationship in which raw materials are to be exploited for profit and expanded production. A worker’s talents are treated like any material resource in they are used for the profit of the owner and not as source of self-fulfillment and she becomes yet one more degrade physical force of production. Workers compete with other workers for that fall from the master’s table leading to nationalism, xenophobia and racism.

Work now become as source of pain and it becomes the source of pleasure and power of the thief who contributes nothing. The owner is glorified and the producer is turned into a beast of burden. What the worker creates is not the origin of her misery and her creativity is her curse. That a person as a worker finds a job only if that job produces profit for another, creates conflicting worldviews to the capitalist he creates jobs and should receive thanks. To the worker the capitalist is a thief who steals part of her day to feed his greed.

Wage are the price charged for the rented slave in which a worker sells herself by the hour, day or month between starting time and quitting time each day. The worker works only when the employer finds it profitable the employ her for her labor power.  Because the owner owns the private resources in production the labor power of the worker becomes the private property of the owner. In addition to creating products sold for a profit, the worker forced to forge the chains of her own bondage.

Capitalism undermines traditional social obligations that guarantee that each individual have the necessary resources need to live. The direct produces must become separated from the access the resources needed in production or the products of distribution. Commodities are products created by the worker and the object source of her oppression. The worker is forced to give the capitalist not only her daily energy as labor power but that what she creates that is owned by the capitalist. Daily the capitalist grows stronger feasting on the blood and the entrails of the worker, while her life slips away on the level prairie of despair. The creative power of the worker is stolen and she is but lowest common dominator a mere extinction of the machines that consume her soul, while the capitalist grows fat living of her life essence and lying to himself by convincing that there is something his life that is parasitic. The strategy, the procedure the goal and soul of the capitalist are a lie. The labor and production of the worker all threaten her as a foreign aggressive, evil and domination by the supremacy of exploitation and oppression. Wealth produced by the worker is the origin of her poverty as she makes thing that belong to another. She buys back what she has made losing the little money has making the capitalist fat twice once by her surplus labor which is the source of his profits and as a consumer forced to buy from the thief the her own product. To make matters even more absurd competition pit thieving capitalist against thieving capitalist if my capitalist loses I lose my job. The absurdity of the capitalist economy means crisis is the norm and equilibrium is a superstitious dream that never happens. Monopoly only adds to the problems, as government and business are really only one.

April 22, 2011

Rational Discourse vs. Critical Discourse
Rational Discourse is all about objectivity. The researcher suspending any and all value judgments. Following the scientific method while remaining detached from the ethics or how it results or whether the research will have an effect on the people being studied. The researchers goal is to get the facts and then let the data speak for themselves. The core ethic is value free social research.

Critical discourse also uses science. But, claim value free is both impossible and immoral. That all research has an agenda, and all researchers are an advocate of one group or another. For example the rational discourse people speak for the powers to be. The social scientists have a moral responsibility to defend and advocate for the disenfranchised, the dispossessed, the poor, and the powerless. The Sociologists, Historians, and Anthropologists are on the front line in class struggle.

Cerebral Marxists claim that they are within the Rational Discourse camp they are determinists. By studying capitalism objectively they can prove its weakness, historical contradictions that cannot be resolved and that it will be replaced by something else all past historical epochs has passed away and were replaced capitalism is no different.

Gut Marxists claim social activism and choice is required to guide social action in a direction leading participatory democracy otherwise the final results maybe even worse.

Many determinists thought that Marxism studied trends that were predetermined. That objectivity is independent of any set of ethics.  Ethical systems are established to lend support to conventional political and economic structures. That ethics or morality supplements coercion in maintains order for the elite. This is an empiricist view of Marxism. It is clear that the school of thought of Marxism should be seen as falling in the critical camp as concepts like alienation or surplus labor carry with it ethical implications. Also at some point socialism is also a social movement that challenges capitalism as an economic system, a political organization and a culture. Freedom, freedom, participatory democracy is the ultimate goals of socialism. The problem remain is a Marxist ethics a supplement added to the science or is ethics the guide that directs the science. The commitment of class struggle led by class-consciousness and a class for itself replacing a class in itself clearly are ethical statement that both precede and follow the historical studies done by Marxists. The point being while we are the product of real historical and cultural settings, including the ethics that reflect that time, we are also involved in a real struggle in which the fate of humanity is at stake. It goes beyond right against right, but replacing one cultural based set of ethics by another. This is not sending out the missionaries to convert the savages, but class combat and the struggle for power and to be in charge of the nation and the world. It is not enough to found a socialist movement on ethical arguments alone. The use of Historical Sociology, Economic Anthropology, Political Sociology, Cross cultural and Historical comparisons and a rigorous social science is required to guide the activist on what is possible at any point in history. The long-range goals are the constant guide, though it remains open and vague so as not to corrupt the current possibilities. The long-range goals are more like heartfelt worldly ecological ambiance, than a detailed formula. Because there is a unity between theory and action, unity between subjective and objective a revolutionary morality is an on going life style than a code of ethics.

April 25 2011

The dominant ideology assumes            s there is a human nature independent of history or culture. Yet, the on going issue is this nature as it is taught in schools reflected the social arrangements and a worldview in which wealth and markets were taken as given. In fact competing alternative ideologies have always existed.

Because we relate to the market as it were a divine entity independent of human creation, we fail to see the humanity involved in production. Finished products are sold on the market as if they were totally the product of the capitalist with the help of the workers who work for him, or the product appeared by magic in the market without a prior history of human manufacture or compilation. What are real become unreal, real people made thing under exploitive conditions. What is unreal becomes real products take on a “life of their own” and they sell for a price.

Human in a social setting interact with nature, the ecosystem, taking from nature what they need to live. They transform these materials into useful items through labor. This on going process is an on going relationship with both nature and other people who cooperate in production, distribution and consumption of what we make with our work. When we loose sight of this ongoing mutually supportive relationship we forget that real peoples lives our touched by our purchases. It is not products that we buy but social relations that we establish by buying a product. The production process alienates the worker because the alienation of the laborer from her manufactured goods, which then threaten her as an foreign and unrelated authority over her life by strengthening the capitalist who the surplus labor of all his employees, while barely lives from pay check to pay check. This specific is to a particular stage in history and a particular culture, which is known as capitalist culture. Yet two things remain human nature is both historically specific and biologically universal. The worker in capitalist society is different than the feudal serf, the peasant in ancient Egypt, the slave in ancient Athens. The personality, worldview and lifestyle are different, yet all ate exploited. At the same time humans is an inactive part of nature both a biological animal and a social being that survives because some people work.

Because humans are social and physical they survive as animals in a social setting. By interacting with the environment they create themselves as humans, while interacting within that environment they alter that environment and thus continuously recreate themselves as people.

Now we are at the “should and is” divide. We are both social and biological animals. Through economies we provide for a human needs. Some economies are more exploitive, i.e. creating the wealth of the few at the expense of the many who actually through their labor create that wealth.

The problem is to seek any improvement we need grounding in sociology as scientific method of arranging the information we have to work with in order see the option as they really are at anytime. Communal improvement is the insurgent discerning assembly of new arrangements that are the definitive significance upon which we build our collective actions.

The morality of the society we live in is morally intolerable. It is our ethical responsibility to become revolutionaries there are no other option and still be good people. As things change new possibilities become open to our understanding. Only things that are possible are probable at any one time.

The Revolution is on going the ultimate Anarchist Dream is the ultimate goal of workers self managements, worker councils, community councils or soviets with power resting at the local level with all the citizens and federated upward in which each level coordinates at that level and directly answerable, formally liable, held responsible and accountable to the level immediately below. This is the ultimate goal and what does to move closer to this goal is how we judge our actions. In following this path we establish the notion of an uncomplicated adequate food and necessary resources of the income need for basic necessities and a practical amenities and services of a good life.

April 26, 2011

Job leading to a shameful enduring impasse of mind deadening, body-crippling life consuming iron trap of incongruity and hopelessness create people will to rebel. For this reason is created in our dreams the on the whole the very generous utopian aspirations of insurrection. Even where the rudiments of the awe-inspiring are embedded within routine occurrences of everyday life each moment is charged with a fiery euphony of the epiphany of radiance. Because we are a product of our social upbringing we would to establish corresponding culture surrounded and entrenched by a luxurious ethical awareness of the sense of duty of attention to world in which my happiness is founded on the happiness of others. This change comes about only we refuse to tolerated injustices, inequality, exploitation and oppression of others, even is have it pretty good ourselves. This means along with the struggle for economic and political equality at the global level comes a sense of not only social justice, but also social responsibility at the individual level. Alone those lines basic civil liberties can never be sacrifice or comprised with or we run the risk of losing everything. We must defend the other as hard as we defend our own kind. We can expect nothing less from ourselves and demand nothing less for ourselves.

April 27, 2011

Mutual Aid the foundation of not only a humanist ethic, but also an evolutionary strategy. This unusual set of principles is a moral value of manifold range of care based upon reciprocal support of understanding and thoughtfulness before we act. It goes beyond charity to changing the basic economic and political institutions to not only to meet every individual’s basic needs, to end both gripping poverty and immoral extremes of wealth.

Because we can say no at anytime we choose how we react to any situation. We can continue to the support the dominant culture of mutual indifference and individual responsibility for the structural failure of the market being transferred to the poor and victims of capitalism. The other alternative is to support a replacement counterculture to oppose this culture of capitalist view everyone get what she deserves under capitalism. In point of fact everyone get what she deserves warrants either to resist exploitation with some sort of collective action, or live with abuse as if it was acceptable. No matter how limited the options are we find we always have more than one choice. However, so many people make similar choices under comparable circumstances we can make predictions, we are often right and every once in a while we are wrong. Sympathetic understanding or imagination and empathy becomes the standard from Mutual Aid is derived. Everyone else is an Other to me, and I am an Other is everyone else. I am myself to no one but myself.

With myself living in the world with others and having only a limited influence on others I must learn give and take. These others also have choices they can make. No mater what I do my control over the state of affairs is incomplete and this indeed can be seen as a risk to my standing in the community.   Laws with penalties for violation only work imperfectly at best. Life with others entails care and some basic measure of sympathetic understanding and mutual aid to counter mutual suspicion and apathy inherent in the culture of capitalism; our direct influence is limited under the best of circumstances. Human have the potential for avarice and they have the potential for munificence. Humans have a potential for rivalry and for collaboration it a matter what is reward with the particular cultural setting. To maintain our reciprocated wellbeing we come to an understanding to control our choices to take into account the welfare of others. Yet the choice always remain to act without the concern for others and is why sympathetic understanding is essential to the health of a community. In the past we put a check on choices through persuasion, shared ideology, threats and coercion. But even with arguments, common ideas, peer pressure and intimidation it remains important both greed and generosity exists some societies reward one more than the other. It is in these sets of relationships between myself an others I redefine myself based upon reciprocal relationships. The self is created out of these relationships.

The relationship between the social and material environment and ideology, culture, religion, philosophy, civilization and common values is not hard and fast and causal relation go only one way. In fact it is a feed back loop of continual interaction, multiple variables interacting with each other and with the ever-changing social whole. While this process is going on the renovation into its conflicting parts that resolve themselves within the confines of something new is always happening. That the conscious act of taking action to create a more compassionate society operates with an empirically defined set of alternatives. Through act conflicting parts of a something is brought into sharp imagery as set against the background of continual evolution. Work through this we clearly something is always becoming what it is not. That it is what it is and something else. This means our choices really count and once a decision is made we have forever changed the objective material environment. The objective creates what is possible for the subjective, and the subjective is always altering the objective.

Knowing through understanding mimics the life of humankind, and forms it’s coming into an awareness of a social movement, leading joint-activity, self-development that was applied to seeing through political behavior that the subjective and objective are two sides of the same coin.
April 28, 2011

Because so many people are conformists, it must be considered that most people try to avoid choices by choosing the easiest path. “Others” are the point of reference, or at least what I think “Others” think about me. It would seem the greatest fear is to be in a situation of making a choice and being responsible for that choice, or being true to oneself.

Because we have little influence of how others understand us never have a clear knowledge that we are part of a social whole. We can only have faith in we have the skills to come to terms with the source of our concern. Life’s meaning is hard to hold on to. We experience neglect as a throw away person until we find some solace in the movement for human dignity. This sensation of hidden trepidation edges upon us when we least expected it. Ultimately and daily we are forced by our situation to make decisions and even inconsequential ones can have life altering consequences. We either support insurrection or we support acquiescence.

The life of someone begins in earnest when we ask is life worth living. We find meaning when we choose for ourselves with eyes open what that meaning is. This is only the beginning; once we chose our meaning that meaning becomes real. Once we face this omnipresent insecurity this is beginning of a real life and the beginning of a meaningful life of our own creation.  This is the regeneration of a making something stand out as the foundation of progression that which is comparable to both the movement and the people in the movement.

April 29, 2011

The people who live their lives restrained by their trepidations, anxieties and angst fail to live life at it fullest. The fail to accept the responsibility of the choices they have made. To choose between either quietude or rebellion requires the choice between cowardice or take on the accountability and conscientiousness of the choice Rebellion, opposition, insurrection, and refusal to go along with less than a say on the decisions affecting our lives. Their despair is their own creation they could have chosen resistance. The sedative of life is to give up in the face of oppression and exploitation. The tranquillizing of in the face of death is the refusal to live. Each like the one before is given over to apathy, lethargy, barrenness, impeded, unfruitful, and unproductive safety before struggling liberty. Self-determination is beautiful but scary. But not accepting sovereignty we choose to lie to ourselves. We create a world of deception and triviality and that entire world requires that we believe our lies and dressing for prom in a gown of racism, sexism, nationalism, homophobia and etc. We be economical with the truth and tell ourselves we are better than we are. Only by making others inferior in our own eyes we become able to we feel good about our cowardice and our dishonesty. We become reliant on our lies, or we must openly face what we have become. To resist these lies leads to resistance of repression. It is only then we can regain our humanity. Powerlessness is the issue. Power does not corrupt it is unequal power that corrupts. The slave who rebels frees both herself and her master. The master is also dependent can never be free. The wise master joins in on the slave rebellion fighting shoulder to shoulder with the slaves against all masters. Freedom illusion is born in resistance.

April 30, 2011

1902 – 1903 Expanded 1798 Alien and Sedition’s Act of 1798 to include speech, press or association with anarchist groups be made a crime.

Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 that made any criticism of the war effort a crime carrying stiff prison terms for those anti-war activists.  This provided up to 20 years in prison and $10,000 fine.
Those who spoke or wrote against the war were arrested in droves. Over fifteen hundred people were charged under these laws for the crime of expressing an opinion the government did not agree with. One socialist, Rose Pastor Stokes was sentenced to ten years in prison for telling an all-female audience that she was for the people, while the government was for the profiteers. Eugene V. Debs, a prominent socialist leader, was sentenced to ten years in a federal penitentiary for a rather academic speech analyzing the economic causes of war.  A provision in the Espionage Act authorized the postmaster general to bar a wide variety of materials from being sent through the mail. Wilson’s postmaster general, Albert S. Burleson, seized and suppressed all kinds of publications that he deemed radical, dissenting, or otherwise suspect.
Nor did the Supreme Court defend the basic constitutional rights of those convicted under these repressive laws. In 1919 the Court upheld the convictions of people who had been imprisoned for speaking out against the war. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., justified such repression by saying that when the exercise of free speech constituted a “clear and present danger” to the nation, and then the government could suspend the right of free speech. Of course, the government got to decide what constituted a “clear and present danger,” and both the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 were wielded like blunt instruments against anyone who dared to disagree with the government.
SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States, or to promote the success of its enemies, or shall willfully make or convey false reports, or false statements, . . . or incite insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully obstruct . . . the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, or . . . shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States, or the Constitution of the United States, or the military or naval forces of the United States . . . or shall willfully display the flag of any foreign enemy, or shall willfully . . . urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production . . . or advocate, teach, defend, or suggest the doing of any of the acts or things in this section enumerated and whoever shall by word or act support or favor the cause of any country with which the United States is at war or by word or act oppose the cause of the United States therein, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both

Voorhis Act -- 18 U.S.C. ¬ß 2386  - 1938
       The Voorhis Act (18 U.S.C. ¬ß 2386) requires registration with the Attorney General of certain organizations, the purpose of which is to overthrow the government or a political subdivision thereof by the use of force and violence.

Hatch Act (1939) - formally known as the "Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, a. deny employment to members of the Communist Party, or any Front Organization. b. Public employees may not take an active part in partisan politics.

The Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise, or teach the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises, or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association.

McCarran Act or Internal Security Act of 1950 required registration with the Attorney General of the American Communist Party and affiliated organizations. It shall be unlawful to conspire to establish a totalitarian dictatorship, to conceal membership of the American Communist Party when seeking government employment or to use a United States passport. Communists and members of other organizations considered to be dangerous to public safety could also be excluded or deported from the United States.

Kilgore Amendment provided camps for the emergency detention of subversive groups and individuals in case of a national emergency.  Provide an index of such individuals to be pick up and detained.

Executive Order 9806 November 1946
Temporary Commission to investigate loyalty

Executive Order 9835 April 1947: Truman Loyalty Oath
1.    All federal employees must sign a loyalty oath.
2.    - employee could be fired if "reasonable grounds" to suspect loyalty
Executive Order 10241 April 1951 Replace in Executive Order 9835 wording reasonable grounds with reasonable doubt.

Executive Order 10450 April 1953 dismissal of any public employee whose employment is not consistent with national security.

May 1
Antonio Labriola Essays on the Materialist Conception of History
Humans are a historical product set in an always-changing cultural setting. Change is the product of life and the origin of life. The action taken at anytime are situational and set in a specific historical environment. A good theory is necessary to lead any action that has even the remote possibility of success. This theory needs to reflect a real historical and empirical reality.

This study combine Historical Sociology with Anthropology grounded in a materialist understanding of human i.e. cultural evolution. This historical and environmental understanding of the role of change is fundamental.
From small and simple band communities to complex global economies we can see the evolution of strategies dealing with progressively more multifaceted issues leading ever more complicated societies. This on going process follows patterns that become increasing understandable as we gain more sophisticated intellectual tools that are a part of an economy and society found upon industrial capitalism.

History is the product of people acting in ecological surroundings that preceded the birth of the current generation and was and is modified by the activities of their collective behavior in a real and ever changing environment. This very natural and historical setting is to be understood by the actors involved through their own creative literature. The religious and philosophical interpretations that are both spiritual and idealistic imaginary tale of narrative that changes as the historical setting changes.
From this is born the collective social psychology of a nation and an epoch. This cultural setting is the forthright consequence of the social, political and economic setting. The natural environment, technology and social organization that define a people in a historically specific national era and communal awareness are giving delivery to a unique mindset in a special worldview. Culture is reflective of the environmental, technological, social setting changing as the physical milieu, communal, the social order and tools of life changes. From band to chiefdom the social structure becomes more multifaceted and the religion become more reflective of differences between different levels within the community.

When we pass over to state level society and there is firmly established a permanent hierarchy of intergenerational social economic classes. The ideology will reflect an insuperable social partition between the producers little more than beast of burden and a nonproductive elite the consort of gods. 

With the growth of inequality as social stratification, political coercion of government closely follows the rise of a professional priesthood of the official religion and a popular religion of the masses that offers consolation without threatening the power elite. The king God and the tributary state allows the producers of wealth to feel it its natural for the non-productive elite to control the riches while those who create that wealth live in gripping poverty.

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